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Rug Types

Caucasian Carpets:

This refers to rugs made/produced in the area between The Caspian and Black Sea. These rugs are made from good quality wool and usually have around 200 knots per square inch. Design wise, these rugs have a traditional design patterns as well as geometric designs such as stars, squares, and diamonds. Other designs found on these rugs include animals, flowers and people. The edges of the rug’s design can include crabs, diagonal strips, and hexagonal lattices, ‘S’ shapes and wine cups. These rugs are extremely colorful, always featuring red, with mostly bright shades of blue, yellow, brown, green and ivory.

Chinese Carpets:

Originating in the 1700’s, the Chinese utilize the Persian knot in their rugs. Made of mostly wool, but occasionally cotton, these rugs feature 50 knots per square inch. The main feature is a sculpted design which is created using a specialty finishing scissors and a design that includes a center medallion and corner pattern. These rugs can feature lotuses and other flower designs, drums, wheels, fans, flutes, and swords. They can also depict mountains, clouds, rocks and characters that represent good luck. The color scheme is multicolored: beige, gold, green and rose.

Indian Carpets:

Sirdar: Also a design, these rugs are durable but plain pastel colored with embossed borders. These rugs are hand knotted in one color tone and are sized from 2 feet x 4 feet all the way up to 12 feet x 20 feet. These carpets are extremely thick and generally have 50-75 knots per square inch, making them affordable.

Indian-Savonnerie: Originated from French design, these rugs feature a centered medallion in various colors of field aside from blue or green fields. These rugs are not as intricate as Persian Rugs and feature an open pastel shaded field, bolder and contrasting colors along the border.

Kashmir: These densely knotted rugs feature a dark center medallion in a light pastel field. These thin-piled, limp-backed rugs are made from very fine Kashmir wool and are becoming increasingly popular to export.

Chinese: These rugs are usually broken into two different types: Bengali and China, both of which feature a sculpted design which is created using a specialty finishing scissors. The Bengali carpets are usually tri-colored with an ivory colored field, and usually have a medium thickness, made of wool and are made in various sizes up to 12 feet x 20 feet. Chinese type rugs have a heavy, all wool pile, and are usually made with soft tones.

Persian and Tukoman: These rugs are most predominately sold due to functionality and reasonable price. They do not feature any specific design features or sizing.

Pakistani Carpets:

Pakistani Rugs began to flourish in 1958 when the government began federally funding the production of these rugs to increase their production and export. The design of these rugs mainly copy Turkoman patters, but also can be seen borrowing both Persian and Caucasian patterns. They are typically tied with Persian knots and are made of either wool or cotton, making a rug that is of medium density.

Mori: Made of Kashmiri wool, these dense rugs can be made up to 600 knots per square inch. They come in sizes up to 5.5 feet x 7.5 feet and feature gul designs that are surrounded by a green, pastel or red background. The rugs also have a very hard backing, making the rug very sturdy.

Turkoman: These rugs look similar to the types of rugs coming from Russia and Afghanistan, but feature a softer back. The rug designs resemble Tekke, Salor or Afghan patterns in over 50% of their production.

Persian: These are simplistic in both design and weave quality. Featuring both Kiram and Kashan designs, these limp backed rugs are more decorative than an everyday use rug.

Caucasian: Featuring bold color schemes, these rugs feature both geometrical and floral designs, and also feature a soft limp underside.

Prayer: Originally woven in Turkey, this type of rug is now predominately made in Pakistan. These rugs don’t have symmetry around the weft axis, but always have a sharp arrow like point which always is pointed East, towards Mecca. These rugs, that are usually no larger than 2 feet x 3 feet, feature designs that include a mosque center theme. Hands, birds, minarets, steps and other religious symbols are also used on these rugs.

Persian:

Persian rugs originated in Iran and are now produced in three distinct places: the home, the city shop and the nomadic tent. Known for their cutting edge artistic design, Persian rugs are known for their use of Stars or Rosettes, palmettes or Shah Abbas designs, paisley or leaf figures.

Tabriz: Rugs sold in the Tabriz Market are usually broken down into 5 different categories, which we will address individually. The Tabriz rugs exhibit a short pile, Turkish knot and a cotton warp and weft. These rugs are typically larger in size.

Tehran: These rugs usually exhibit a short nap, and above average density, coming in both 4 feet x 6 feet and 5 feet x 7 feet dimensions. They come in a variety of colors and feature medallions, floral sprays, as well as Caucasian Patterns.

Qum: These rugs are known for having a medium to thin pile thickness and an average knot density exceeding 300 knots per square inch. These rugs can be anywhere from 4 feet x 7 feet to 7 feet x 10 feet and use the Persian Knot. They feature floral sprays in contrasting dark backgrounds. A center medallion, overall paisley design and set square patterns.

Kashan: These rugs utilize a Persian Knot and exhibit a velvet-like pile of the finest wool. Usually woven with Shah Abbas rossettes or an attractive central medallion, encased in an intricate floral design surrounded by a red field with delicate scrolls in the border.

Isphan:  These are generally the most expensive rugs produced in Iran today. They use a short, dense pile with knots exceeding 600 per sq. in.  These rugs range in size from 3 feet x 5 feet all the way to 11 feet x 16 feet and usually have a light background with pastel tones and mild tones of red and blue.

Mashed: These rugs are usually medium to heavy in thickness. They are most noted for exhibiting a Persian knots and are uniquely woven into square sizes. They usually come in pastel colors and red is the most prominent colors.

Kirman: These rugs are tied with Persian Knots and usually come in sizes 2 feet x 3 feet and 11 feet x 4 feet, and are generally medium to heavy in weight. These rugs commonly feature Kirman medallions in an open field of ivory, cream and blue.

Shiraz: These are some of the most varied type of rug in both density and size. Ranging from 3 feet x 5 feet to 5 feet x 7 feet, these rugs show a pear or paisley pattern surrounded by a checkerboard design.

Hamadan: There are two types of Hamadan rugs; Hamadan and Saraband. The far more famous Hamadan are usually woven into runner sizes with a density never exceeding 225 knots per square inch and were made from cotton, silk and camel hair. Their design features include the use of a geometric and Herati design featured in a background of red

Sarouk: Most popular size coming in 4.5 feet x 6.5 feet, these rugs feature a traditional floral pattern in an all over design meaning there was no need for a center design.

Nain: These are generally on the higher end in thickness, coming in at an average of 350 knots per square inch, but can go up to 600 knots per square inch. The design patterns commonly feature a light cream, beige or dark blue background, and are covered in various floral sprays.

Turkoman Carpets:

This type of rug adheres to the strictest conformity in design. Tied with Persian knots, these rugs are made from wool or goat’s hair and are considered medium to heavy rugs. Never exceeding 300 knots per square inch, these rugs typically come in sizes up to 5 feet x 8 feet. These rugs are mostly black and red in color, and are commonly made in Iran, Russia Afghanistan and West Pakistan.

Tekke: These are seen to be the most intricately designed rugs of Turkoman Rugs. They have a gul pattern in 3-4 rows of 8-sided guls joining at intersecting points by thin lines to form a rectangle. Tarantulas, or 8-pointed stars, are centered in the field to break up the monotony of the rest of the rug.

Salor:

These rugs are incredibly complicated in design. Some features include an 8-sided emblem in which the weft side is longer, as well as angular hooks and curved edges in a stepped pattern.  They have a black background and three rows of alternating red medallions, which are commonly highlighted with thin white lines.

Yomud: These rugs feature the tarantula design, mostly in a rusty red color. The borders on these rugs either show crisscross patchwork or large stubby flowers.

Pendeh: These are typically the least complicated of all Turkoman rugs. The field of these rugs can be red, brown, blue or Ivory in color and feature 3-4 rows of guls that alternate with rows of stars. The border generally features a rosette or zig-zag pattern.

Afghan: These rugs are also known as, Khiva. These carpets have large equal-sided guls. The design of the guls are closely spaced and quartered with a diamond patter in the center and are almost exclusively red and black.

Baluchi: These are the coarsest of all Turkoman rugs. They feature bold and geometric motifs including pinecones, large octagons, eight-pointed stars and rows of alternating diamonds. The borders of this rug use patterns that include: geometric figures, stemmed flowers and diamonds surrounding crosses.

Turkish Carpets:

First made in the 12th century, these were originally called Anatolia Rugs. These rugs feature geometric patterns and stylized figures and are generally larger in size.